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Subject: Leo Enews 2(9)
Date: 16 Sep 1992 11:21:32 GMT
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September 15, 1992 Volume 2 : Number 9


<<<<< FRONT END >>>>>
Cage is Here : Judy Malloy

<<<<< WORDS ON WORKS >>>>>
CAT TRAILS: Maria Perez
CHROMATISM: Francesco Giomi

LA REVUE KAOS: Jean-Pierre Balpe
Virtual Reality Installations: Peter Terezakis
Xb: Reed Altemus
Carolee Schneemann's VIDEO BURN: Judy Malloy

LEONARDO Journal and MIT Press: Craig Harris
FAST Developments: Craig Harris
FAST Updates: Nancy Nelson
FAST Calendar: Nancy Nelson

JOHN CAGE - September 5, 1912 - August 12, 1992

Like the crowd voiced refrain in revival meetings or political
conventions, the phrase

"Cage is here"

-- repeated after contemplation of contemporary art, literature and
music -- runs in my mind on this warm August day in New Hampshire where
(besides the sound of the mowing machinery and the resulting perfectly
shaped hay bales strewn apparently at random across cropped fields)
the only evidence of art and technology is this "illuminated
manuscript" on my computer monitor and the "happy habit" of
telecomputing that produces and distributes it. [1]

Although he died of a stroke in New York City a few weeks ago, John
Cage, a longtime Honorary Editor of LEONARDO, is still here --
inventor, interested and accessible colleague, destroyer of the
boundaries that separated art and technology, not only by his works and
words but also by his invention/experimentation approach to art. A
very few of the many Cage works and words appropriate to this forum are
listed below.
In 1937, John Cage said "The use of noise to make music will continue
and increase until we reach a music produced through the aid of
electrical instruments that will make available for musical purposes
any and all sounds that can be heard." [2]

"His 1939 The Imaginary Landscape No. I is considered by some to be
the first electronic composition. The sounds were provided by test
recordings of constant frequencies, the kind used by radio stations
and in acoustical research. Two performers varied the frequencies by
manipulating variable-speed turntables." [3]

In the l950's he made a series of collaborative works/experiments in
electronic music with composers Morton Feldman, Christian Wolff and
Earle Brown and the pianist David Tudor.

In 1951, he began his work (that continues to be influential in
computer art) with the I Ching and with randomness. In this year, he
also drove the automobile that Rauschenberg used to make his painting
"Automobile Tire Track".

in 1961 his orchestral work "Atlas Eclipticalis" was composed with a
combination of astronomical charts and chance operations.

In 1962 he was a cofounder of the New York Mycological Society. (His
personal collection of mycology literature is now housed at the
University of California at Santa Cruz.)

In a diary (1966) he wrote: "Are we an audience for computer art? The
answer isn't No; it's Yes. What we need is a computer that isn't
labour-saving but which increases the work for us to do, that puns
(this is McLuhan's idea) as well as Joyce revealing bridges (this is
Brown's idea) where we thought there weren't any, turns us (my idea)
not 'on' but into artists."

"Reunion", a game of chess on an amplified board in which moves
activated sound systems was conceived in 1968.

HPSCHD (for Harpsichord and tape /with Lejaren Hiller) was written by
programming the I Ching into a computer and performed at the University
of Illinois at Urbana in 1969.

In 1975 "Child of Tree" was written for amplified plant materials; In
that same year, "Lecture on the Weather" combined Thoreau's words
(chanted) with film and audio of breeze rain and thunder

1985 he authored "The First Meeting of the Satie Society" a many voices
(Thoreau, Joyce, Duchamp, Mann, McLuhan, and Cage) mesostic, created
with two custom computer programs (by Andrew Culver, Jim Rosenberg)
that is still available on Art Com Electronic Network on the WELL
1. the quotes are John Cage words about computer art and telecomputing
2. IN: Breaking the Sound Barrier. Gregory Battcock, ed. Dutton, 1981
p. 202
3. The Boston Globe 8/13/92
Judy Malloy <[email protected]>

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< WORDS ON WORKS >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


Richard Gess, Cataloging Dept.
Woodruff Library, Emory University
Atlanta GA 30322-2870 USA

Email: <[email protected]>

MAHASUKHA HALO is a text with two lives. Its first incarnation,
written in May-June 1990, was a block of 120 sentences in a single
unindented paragraph. Most of the sentences were written in first
person in several voices differentiated by italics and/or subject. One
rule was set for their assembly: no sentence was allowed to continue
the voice or subject of the sentence preceding it. This text was
eventually published in LOWLIFE magazine [1]. In August-December 1991 I
converted the print HALO into a Macintosh-based 376K standalone
Storyspace hypertext. This electronic HALO consists of 308 text spaces
interconnected by 759 links; the 120-sentence core has been expanded to
include the working notes made before and during the writing of the
print text and a substructure of samples, citations, and references
detailing the web of intertexts the original work was drawn from. Each
space containing one of the original sentences is captioned with the
name of its speaker or subject; sentences with the same speaker or
subject are linked in circular paths, as are sentences sharing images
or comprising partial narratives. The Storyspace MAHASUKHA HALO
animates the original.

Guy Davenport, discussing the "architechtonic" films of Stan Brakhage
and others, described those films as "succession[s] of images that do
not tell a story but define a state of mind" [2]. This is how
MAHASUKHA HALO is meant; not as a "Garden-of-Forking-Paths"-genre
multiple narrative, but as a field of images for interactive
exploration. Using the Storyspace Reader, it is navigable in several
virtual directions, but no direction is ever privileged or denied. This
means that readers may initially feel lost; this is a state the *Halo*
deliberately invokes. By exploiting "lostness"--via fragmentation,
repetition, digressions to notes and intertexts, and looping--the
*Halo* breaks down conditioned expectations of narrative, making
readers concentrate instead on individual images and their resonances
in accretion. All this may sound less than reader-friendly, but readers
usually find the *Halo* more seductive than forbidding, a work that
invites its necessary rereading.

The HALO's sentences cumulate towards a description of an
extraterrestrial subculture taking mutating drugs to alter and
accelerate their species' natural cycles of cross-sexual alternation.
The sentences do not add up to a "story." Pieces of stories start and
stop, a world is delineated, characters speak, but the "action" of the
HALO, like a cloud after an explosion, may consist primarily of
happenings never seen. Hyperfiction author Michael Joyce has called it
"a story that hasn't been told yet" [3]. The word "halo" in the title
alludes to the work's cloud-like structure, and also to the circular
arrangement of its text pieces and the interlocking circles of its
paths. The word "mahasukha" is the name for the Nepalese Buddhist
concept of transcendence through erotic experience.

The hypertext MAHASUKHA HALO was commissioned by PERFORATIONS
magazine, and appeared as an on-disk supplement to PERFORATIONS 1,
no. 2. A 2.0 version is slated for publication in Eastgate Press's
forthcoming hypertext quarterly; copies of the 1.1 version are
available from the author. The Storyspace hypertext writing environment
is published by Eastgate Systems (PO Box 1307, Cambridge MA 02238).
1. Richard Gess, "Mahasukha Halo," LOWLIFE 17, n.p.
2. Guy Davenport, "Narrative Tone and Form." In THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE
IMAGINATION (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1981) p. 317.
3. Michael Joyce, personal communication (1992).



Maria Perez
410 Tapia Bld, #7
Albuquerque, New Mexico USA

In the summer of 1991, I followed the paths of four cats who lived in
my Uncle's neighborhood on the West side of the Rio Grande River.
Their names were Madonna, Mantequilla, Bruce, and Rudy. I drew and
photographed these cats while they went through the grass and dirt,
down the road or along the River. I also drew and photographed them
sitting in the sun on the adobe walls or in the shade in the patio of
my Uncle's house. I drew a map of the area where the cats spent their
time and marked on it the places where I saw them go and the things
that they did.

Using closeups of the maps, the photos that I took, and footage of my
drawings, I made a video tape called CAT TRAILS (17 mins 1992).
CAT TRAILS shows many aspects of the lives of domestic cats. It
includes photos of Madonna and Bruce forming a team to catch mice,
photos of Bruce and Rudy fighting with each other, and drawings of all
the cats drinking water and washing themselves on hot days. My
Brother, Larry Perez, wrote a guitar song, "Mantequilla", that plays in
the background.



Francesco Giomi
Divisione Musicologica CNUCE/C.N.R.
Conservatorio di Musica "L.Cherubini"
Piazza Belle Arti, 2
50122 Firenze

Email: <[email protected]>

The computer music piece CHROMATISM (for tape, 1992 - 12'30")
takes as a starting point the author's researches on electroacoustic
music analysis, based on the sound object concept. It also integrates
some experiences in the field of music and image interaction. The
title derives from the above-mentioned reasons. In fact, the word
"chromatism" has specific traits both in the musical and visual field.

CHROMATISM includes six studies: at first the studies should have
represented six of the twelve colors of the chromatic disk, in order to
re-create, at an auditory level, a sort of sound colors. But during its
composition the piece partially lost this component in favor of the
creation of completed narrative structures which are developed inside
each of the six single fragments. I tried to link the single narrative
paths through an overall structure comprising the six studies. As far
as the sound material is concerned, each fragment takes into
consideration particular aspects of the electronic sound world, like
the alternation between sound and noise, the rhythm caused by partially
random parameters and the environmental characteristics of certain
timbral/harmonical textures. Many of the musical elements are repeated
and amplified from one single piece to another (usually only between
adjacent pieces), in order to create timbral, besides structural, bonds
between the six fragments.

In the work there are both electronic sounds and sampled acoustic
instruments. The first are used in order to emphasize the timbral
aspects, trying to insert compound objects characterized by a tonic
and/or complex mass. Sampled acoustic instruments were used to
create composite events, formed by a rhythmic assemblage of simple
objects or by sound "groups" with a rhythmic function.

CHROMATISM has been realized in Florence at the Musicological
Department of CNUCE/C.N.R. (Conservatory of Music) with the
automatic composition software Teletau, the Yamaha TX81Z
synthesizers and the Roland S550 sampler.


Sonya Rapoport
6 Hillcrest Court
Berkeley, CA 94705 USA

Email: <[email protected]>

SEXUAL JEALOUSY: The Shadow of Love (1992) is a computer-based
interactive installation in which the viewer responds to questions
that investigate the sources of sexual jealousy and address the quality
of that jealousy.

The work is a sequel to the participation performance COPING WITH
SEXUAL JEALOUSY that took place in the Pauley Ballroom at the
University of California, Berkeley, in 1981. The installation space
had been divided into coping areas where participants exorcised their
past jealousy experiences by engaging in ritual that related to their
coping methods.

In SEXUAL JEALOUSY: The Shadow of Love, users' answers to questions on
the computer culminate in a search to find their personalized "shadow"
message on a floor that is covered with the footprints of thirty
Indonesian shadow puppets. The pair of footprints that surrounds the
correct "shadow" message must match the identical foot positions that
appear on the user's last card of the computer program. This footprint
stance is shown on the screen and printed after the participants answer
questions about their choice of mate, feelings of loss, and methods of
coping. When the pair of the footprints on the print out is matched
with the pair on the floor the participants find their personalized
"shadow" message in between -- "Why haven't you told me this before or
"Finally, I blurted out my news." for instance. As the participants
step on the footprints, Indonesian music is emitted that harmonizes
with the other sounds from footstep triggering.

Directly above their footprints are facsimiles of the puppets that have
been printed on clear mylar strips 16"x 32". They "dance" by air
currents from a fan and cast shadows.

The computer program with which the participants interact was created
with Hypercard 2.01 on a Macintosh IIcx having eight megabytes of RAM.
By means of QuickTime and Adobe Premiere software, clips of soap
operas have been accessed from a videotape into the program. They
illustrate ways of coping - an hysterical woman throwing objects or an
vengeful man forcing a woman to "accept" the situation. These soap
operas are interspersed among contextually related cards in the
Hypercard stack.

Accompanying the text, three groups of illustrations - Aubrey Beardsley
drawings, Jungian mythological images and Indonesian Shadow puppets are
orchestrated throughout the program to signal different phases.

Dr. Ayala Pines has been the consulting psychologist. The "shadow"
messages are quotes from movie scripts that relate to the data input by
the participants.


LA REVUE KAOS ("Il faut beaucoup de KAOS dans la tete pour accoucher
d'une etoile qui danse") presents contemporary writing created on
computers. In a color printed disk holder that contains a white disk,
it comes out once a year on New Year's day, distributed by Societe de
Traitement Avance du Langage "qui est heureuse a cette occasion de
vous souhaiter une nouvelle annee particulierement riche d'initiatives
et de creativite."

KAOS No. 1 (1991) contains work by Jean-Pierre Balpe, Philippe Bootz,
Michael Lechner, and Tibor Papp. (on a 5 1/4" MS-DOS disk)
KAOS No. 2 (1992) contains work by Balpe, Jean-Paul Jappe, Bernard
Magne, Christophe Petchanatz, and Patrice Zana.
Contact: KAOS, 87 Rue Voltaire, 92800 Puteaux, France.



Peter Terezakis
Email: [email protected]

The Looking Glass: Artists' First Encounters With Virtual Reality.
Jack Tilton Gallery, 24 West 57th St., NY, NY, 10019. Curated by Janine
Cirincione June 4, through July 3, 1992.

"The Jack Tilton Gallery is pleased to announce the first gallery
exhibition to present the new generation of work by contemporary
artists and collectives who explore virtual reality.

This exhibition and catalog will provide an overview of VR as a
cultural phenomenon, and will exhibit the kinds of images and
virtual worlds that artists will build as access to VR technology
becomes increasingly available." Gallery press release.


Walking through the virtual art space of this show was nowhere near as
thrilling as slogging through a tired children's science museum in
Bridgeport, Connecticut. Fortunately, for this viewer, the trip
uptown was rewarded by having the opportunity to view the works of
David Wilson and Matt Mullican.

Mr. Wilson's BELLES HEURES RECREATION was a thoughtful work,
meticulously crafted. This stereoscopic diorama encouraged the viewer
to approach the work from an open side of the piece. As one
approached the work, one was able to see inside the piece, to examine
the landscape and imagery of the work. When one looked through the
intended viewing stereoscope lenses things changed dramatically. Not
only was the expected stereopsis present, but through the use of
prisms and appropriately arranged images this "primitive" virtual
reality work set a standard that few of the other works could approach
in concept or execution.

The second exception was Mr. Mullican's untitled 1991 video tape of a
virtual reality project that was made possible by a grant through CNAP
Ministere de la Culture, France. The work represented the artist's
preoccupation with architectural environments, both on the planet's
surface and within his mind. It seemed to be about approaching a
problem or living life. One began with an omniscient aerial view
(adolescence) of Anytown, Anywhere and descended (loss of innocence)
to the surface and explored home after home of windowless
neighborhoods. These neat little homes, streets, and perfect lawns,
reminded me of some post apocalyptic Orwellian future state devoid
of animals and humanity. After flirting with anomie a while longer, one
eventually found a window in a home and entered. The meaningful act
of trespassing even in a virtual space evoked a strong reaction. And
by this point one could easily find oneself enjoying near psychedelic
voyeurism while being caught up in the artist's pursuit of his vision.
This was a restless tour de force of prerecorded virtual reality and
Mr. Mullican's vision promises many wonderful things.

A silent icon presiding over the show was a dye print of the layout of
a 486 microprocessor designed by Intel Corporation scientists,
engineers, and technicians. This neobyzantine graphical
representation of the inner workings of the most significant engine of
our era somehow reminded me of the black monolith on the moon in
Arthur Clarke's 2001. Other works included in The Looking Glass were:

BRIAN D'Amato: SET FOR SACRIFICE GAME (1992), LCD monitors, computer
generated video on Sony LCD player
Michael Joaquin Grey & Randolph Huff: NEURAL NETWORK ANIMATIONS (1991),
wax transfer on mylar with plexiglass
Lynn Hershman, in collaboration with Sara Roberts: DEEP CONTACT (1990)
interactive videodisk.
David Johnson: VIRTUAL TILTON GALLERY (1992), modeled gallery in
computer and subsequently installed his own sculptures, geometric
/biomorphic forms whose placement would be determined by the
participant viewer
Nicole Stenger: ANGELS (1992), video sketch of VR film
i486 Intel (1992), dye transfer
Intel & Sense8, 2 virtual reality systems, goggles, joystick, and wand
in the gallery space.
copyright Peter Terezakis, 1992 All Rights Reserved.


Reed Altemus
16 Blanchard Rd.
Cumberland Ctr., Maine
04021-9738 USA

Email: <[email protected]> OR <[email protected]>

Xb : a bibliographic database of the literature of xerography,
(photo)copier art, electrostatic printing and electrographic art, seeks
data and materials about the form copy art and the use of duplicative
printing technologies for cultural or artistic purposes by artists or
non-artists for input into the Procite bibliographic software for the
Macintosh. An ongoing art information-information art project, Xb
requests submissions especially in machine- readable form but also in
other media formats: periodicals, serials, newspaper and magazine
clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, monographs, search
printouts and information on disk, all these are of interest. A copy of
the completed bibliography or the database on diskette (Procite
databases work equally well on Mac or IBM) to each contributor along
with some sort of documentation of the process and a list of
participants. Send submissions either by street or electronic mail to
the above addresses.



Carolee Schneemann's VIDEO BURN (1992), an artist's book of black and
white photos and text, was produced in conjunction with her exhibition
"Scroll Paintings with Exploded TV" (1991) at the San Francisco Art
Institute. [1] Schneemann generated this series of powerful,
disturbing, erotic images from her drawing sequence VIDEO BURN (1987-
1991) . Words -- a few of which are reproduced below -- are integrated
into day-of-the week named, video pattern overlayed drawings that
incorporate imagery ranging from Schneemann's nude body to bound
female figures to right wing demonstrators in Germany.

predatory virus....
submissive erotic victim...
(dissolve to dot matrix)...heart
pump...lubricity and calculated
insistence of alphabet...

captive...drained heart corralled
by putti...infant penises airborne...
sacred material...lost history...
paint... shred...blow up pixels...
inside codex..."
Contacts: Walter/McBean Art Gallery, San Francisco Art Institute, 800
Chestnut St., San Francisco, CA 94133 USA/ Carolee Schneemann, 437
Springtown Rd., New Paltz, NY 12561 USA
*In this installation, mechanized mops suspended from the walls moved
rhythmically beside mop-made paintings while video monitors displayed
the process of the making of the paintings.
Judy Malloy


Leonardo is pleased to officially announce our new publishing
arrangement with MIT Press. Beginning with the 1993 LEONARDO JOURNAL
volume (Volume 26) MIT Press will replace Pergamon Press. Both
Leonardo and MIT Press Journals are excited about our relationship, and
look forward to an interaction which will benefit Leonardo, MIT Press,
and our readers.

FAST Developments
In addition, Leonardo is pleased to inform our readers that MIT Press
Books Division is joining us in the creation of a Leonardo Book Series.
The publication which will launch the series is the Leonardo FINE ART
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE (FAST), which will be an annual hard
copy resource publication comprised of information collected for the
FAST archives and directory databases. It will include individual
and organization directory entries, bibliographies, artists' words on
works, profiles of education and research programs, publication and
event reviews, and more.

As part of the compilation and publication process we are developing a
survey which will be sent to Leonardo/ISAST members, LEONARDO
ELECTRONIC NEWS and FINEART FORUM subscribers, and to people and
individuals currently listed in our database. The Leonardo FAST
Resource is targeted for release in the summer of 1993. We look forward
to hearing back from our audience with details about their current

This publication is part of our current development of the Fine Art
Science Technology system, and represents an important step on the way
towards a true multimedia Leonardo FAST Resource publication.

We are currently in the process of updating FAST on the WELL to reflect
major developments in FAST design. We will continue to post progress
Craig Harris <[email protected]>

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< FAST UPDATES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

The calendars have been posted. Space Arts News will finally be
posted as well as a very slim Members News. A new Directory of
email addresses of subscribers will be posted soon.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< CALENDAR - OCTOBER 1992 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

01 October 1992

Deadline for submissions of abstracts and proposals for
presentations for Creativity and Cognition
Loughborough University of Technology, UK
(Symposium dates: 13-15 April 1993)

Contact: Linda Candy, The Lutchi Research Centre, Loughborough
University of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK,
fax: 44 509 610815, email: [email protected]
05-07 October 1992

Focus on microstructural and macrostructural representations
Capri (Napoli)

Contact: Giovanni De Poli, CSC-DEI, Universita' of Padova, Via
Gradenigo 6a, 35131 PADOVA, Italy, tel.: +39-49-8287631, fax:
+39-49-8287699, e-mail: [email protected]
09-11 October 1992

Visual Languages, IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages
International Convention Center Kobe, Japan

Contact: Professor Tada Ichikawa, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima
University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 724, Japan, tel: 81 824
22 7195, email: [email protected]
13-16 October 1992

SMC 92, IEEE Intl Conf on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
Charlottesville, VA

Contact: Chelsea C White III, Department of Industrial and Operations
Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
MI 48109, USA, tel: 1 313 763 1332, email: [email protected]
24-27 October 1992

Music Analysis, 3rd European Conference of Music Analysis
Trento, Italy

Contact: Academia Filarmonica Trentian, Via Oriola 12, Trento 38100,
Italy, tel: 39 0461 238008, fax: 39 0461 238166.
28-30 October 1992

Eurographics Workshop on Object-Oriented Graphics
Champery, Switzerland

Contact: Eurographics Workshop on Object-Oriented Graphics, Centre
Universitaire d'Informatique, 12 rue du Lac, CH-1207 Geneva,
SWITZERLAND, tel: 41 (22) 787 65 86, fax: 41 (22) 735 39 05,
e-mail: [email protected]
30 October 1992

Deadline for papers for 1st International Conference on Cognitive
Musicology, Jyvaskyla, Finland
(conference dates: 26-29 August 1993)

Contact: Jukka Louhivuori, University of Jyvaskyla, Department of
Musicology, P.O. Box 35, 40351 JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, tel: + 358 41 601
337, fax: + 358 41 601 331, e-mail: [email protected]

Nancy Nelson <[email protected]>
Executive Editor: Craig Harris Editor: Nancy Nelson
Assoc. Editor: Judy Malloy
Editor This issue: Judy Malloy

Leonardo gratefully acknowledges the support of CRSS Architects, Inc.,
and our individual sponsors.

Send requests for subscription to LEONARDO ELECTRONIC NEWS (LEN) to:
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END LEN 2(9), September 15, 1992

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