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Leonardo ELECTRONIC NEWS
_________________________________________________________________

September 15, 1992 Volume 2 : Number 9
_________________________________________________________________

WORDS ON WORKS ISSUE
Contents:

<<<<< FRONT END >>>>>
Cage is Here : Judy Malloy

<<<<< WORDS ON WORKS >>>>>
MAHASUKHA HALO: Richard Gess
CAT TRAILS: Maria Perez
CHROMATISM: Francesco Giomi
SEXUAL JEALOUSY: Sonya Rapoport

<<<<< PROGRAMS AND REVIEWS >>>>>
LA REVUE KAOS: Jean-Pierre Balpe
Virtual Reality Installations: Peter Terezakis Xb: Reed Altemus
Carolee Schneemann's VIDEO BURN: Judy Malloy

<<<<<<<< FAST and LEONARDO JOURNAL INFORMATION >>>>>>>
LEONARDO Journal and MIT Press: Craig Harris FAST Developments: Craig
Harris
FAST Updates: Nancy Nelson
FAST Calendar: Nancy Nelson

============================================= JOHN CAGE - September 5, 1912
- August 12, 1992

Like the crowd voiced refrain in revival meetings or political conventions,
the phrase

"Cage is here"

-- repeated after contemplation of contemporary art, literature and music
-- runs in my mind on this warm August day in New Hampshire where (besides
the sound of the mowing machinery and the resulting perfectly shaped hay
bales strewn apparently at random across cropped fields) the only evidence
of art and technology is this "illuminated manuscript" on my computer
monitor and the "happy habit" of telecomputing that produces and
distributes it. [1]

Although he died of a stroke in New York City a few weeks ago, John Cage, a
longtime Honorary Editor of LEONARDO, is still here -- inventor, interested
and accessible colleague, destroyer of the boundaries that separated art
and technology, not only by his works and words but also by his
invention/experimentation approach to art. A very few of the many Cage
works and words appropriate to this forum are listed below.
-----
In 1937, John Cage said "The use of noise to make music will continue and
increase until we reach a music produced through the aid of electrical
instruments that will make available for musical purposes any and all
sounds that can be heard." [2]

"His 1939 The Imaginary Landscape No. I is considered by some to be the
first electronic composition. The sounds were provided by test recordings
of constant frequencies, the kind used by radio stations and in acoustical
research. Two performers varied the frequencies by manipulating
variable-speed turntables." [3]

In the l950's he made a series of collaborative works/experiments in
electronic music with composers Morton Feldman, Christian Wolff and Earle
Brown and the pianist David Tudor.

In 1951, he began his work (that continues to be influential in computer
art) with the I Ching and with randomness. In this year, he also drove the
automobile that Rauschenberg used to make his painting "Automobile Tire
Track".

in 1961 his orchestral work "Atlas Eclipticalis" was composed with a
combination of astronomical charts and chance operations.

In 1962 he was a cofounder of the New York Mycological Society. (His
personal collection of mycology literature is now housed at the University
of California at Santa Cruz.)

In a diary (1966) he wrote: "Are we an audience for computer art? The
answer isn't No; it's Yes. What we need is a computer that isn't
labour-saving but which increases the work for us to do, that puns (this is
McLuhan's idea) as well as Joyce revealing bridges (this is Brown's idea)
where we thought there weren't any, turns us (my idea) not 'on' but into
artists."

"Reunion", a game of chess on an amplified board in which moves activated
sound systems was conceived in 1968.

HPSCHD (for Harpsichord and tape /with Lejaren Hiller) was written by
programming the I Ching into a computer and performed at the University of
Illinois at Urbana in 1969.

In 1975 "Child of Tree" was written for amplified plant materials; In that
same year, "Lecture on the Weather" combined Thoreau's words (chanted) with
film and audio of breeze rain and thunder

1985 he authored "The First Meeting of the Satie Society" a many voices
(Thoreau, Joyce, Duchamp, Mann, McLuhan, and Cage) mesostic, created with
two custom computer programs (by Andrew Culver, Jim Rosenberg) that is
still available on Art Com Electronic Network on the WELL ------
1. the quotes are John Cage words about computer art and telecomputing
(ART COM MEDIA DISTRIBUTION CATALOG No. 1, p. 69) 2. IN: Breaking the Sound
Barrier. Gregory Battcock, ed. Dutton, 1981
p. 202
3. The Boston Globe 8/13/92
Judy Malloy <[email protected]>

=============================================== <<<<<<<<<<<<<<< WORDS ON
WORKS >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

MAHASUKHA HALO

Richard Gess, Cataloging Dept.
Woodruff Library, Emory University
Atlanta GA 30322-2870 USA

Email: <[email protected]>

MAHASUKHA HALO is a text with two lives. Its first incarnation, written in
May-June 1990, was a block of 120 sentences in a single unindented
paragraph. Most of the sentences were written in first person in several
voices differentiated by italics and/or subject. One rule was set for their
assembly: no sentence was allowed to continue the voice or subject of the
sentence preceding it. This text was eventually published in LOWLIFE
magazine [1]. In August-December 1991 I converted the print HALO into a
Macintosh-based 376K standalone Storyspace hypertext. This electronic HALO
consists of 308 text spaces interconnected by 759 links; the 120-sentence
core has been expanded to include the working notes made before and during
the writing of the print text and a substructure of samples, citations, and
references detailing the web of intertexts the original work was drawn
from. Each space containing one of the original sentences is captioned with
the name of its speaker or subject; sentences with the same speaker or
subject are linked in circular paths, as are sentences sharing images or
comprising partial narratives. The Storyspace MAHASUKHA HALO animates the
original.

Guy Davenport, discussing the "architechtonic" films of Stan Brakhage and
others, described those films as "succession[s] of images that do not tell
a story but define a state of mind" [2]. This is how MAHASUKHA HALO is
meant; not as a "Garden-of-Forking-Paths"-genre multiple narrative, but as
a field of images for interactive exploration. Using the Storyspace Reader,
it is navigable in several virtual directions, but no direction is ever
privileged or denied. This means that readers may initially feel lost; this
is a state the *Halo* deliberately invokes. By exploiting "lostness"--via
fragmentation, repetition, digressions to notes and intertexts, and
looping--the *Halo* breaks down conditioned expectations of narrative,
making readers concentrate instead on individual images and their
resonances in accretion. All this may sound less than reader-friendly, but
readers usually find the *Halo* more seductive than forbidding, a work that
invites its necessary rereading.

The HALO's sentences cumulate towards a description of an extraterrestrial
subculture taking mutating drugs to alter and accelerate their species'
natural cycles of cross-sexual alternation. The sentences do not add up to
a "story." Pieces of stories start and stop, a world is delineated,
characters speak, but the "action" of the HALO, like a cloud after an
explosion, may consist primarily of happenings never seen. Hyperfiction
author Michael Joyce has called it "a story that hasn't been told yet" [3].
The word "halo" in the title alludes to the work's cloud-like structure,
and also to the circular arrangement of its text pieces and the
interlocking circles of its paths. The word "mahasukha" is the name for the
Nepalese Buddhist concept of transcendence through erotic experience.

The hypertext MAHASUKHA HALO was commissioned by PERFORATIONS magazine, and
appeared as an on-disk supplement to PERFORATIONS 1, no. 2. A 2.0 version
is slated for publication in Eastgate Press's forthcoming hypertext
quarterly; copies of the 1.1 version are available from the author. The
Storyspace hypertext writing environment is published by Eastgate Systems
(PO Box 1307, Cambridge MA 02238). -----
1. Richard Gess, "Mahasukha Halo," LOWLIFE 17, n.p. 2. Guy Davenport,
"Narrative Tone and Form." In THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE IMAGINATION (San
Francisco: North Point Press, 1981) p. 317. 3. Michael Joyce, personal
communication (1992).

****

CAT TRAILS

Maria Perez
410 Tapia Bld, #7
Albuquerque, New Mexico USA

In the summer of 1991, I followed the paths of four cats who lived in my
Uncle's neighborhood on the West side of the Rio Grande River. Their names
were Madonna, Mantequilla, Bruce, and Rudy. I drew and photographed these
cats while they went through the grass and dirt, down the road or along the
River. I also drew and photographed them sitting in the sun on the adobe
walls or in the shade in the patio of my Uncle's house. I drew a map of the
area where the cats spent their time and marked on it the places where I
saw them go and the things that they did.

Using closeups of the maps, the photos that I took, and footage of my
drawings, I made a video tape called CAT TRAILS (17 mins 1992). CAT TRAILS
shows many aspects of the lives of domestic cats. It includes photos of
Madonna and Bruce forming a team to catch mice, photos of Bruce and Rudy
fighting with each other, and drawings of all the cats drinking water and
washing themselves on hot days. My Brother, Larry Perez, wrote a guitar
song, "Mantequilla", that plays in the background.

****

CHROMATISM

Francesco Giomi
Divisione Musicologica CNUCE/C.N.R.
Conservatorio di Musica "L.Cherubini"
Piazza Belle Arti, 2
50122 Firenze
Italy

Email: <[email protected]>

The computer music piece CHROMATISM (for tape, 1992 - 12'30") takes as a
starting point the author's researches on electroacoustic music analysis,
based on the sound object concept. It also integrates some experiences in
the field of music and image interaction. The title derives from the
above-mentioned reasons. In fact, the word "chromatism" has specific traits
both in the musical and visual field.

CHROMATISM includes six studies: at first the studies should have
represented six of the twelve colors of the chromatic disk, in order to
re-create, at an auditory level, a sort of sound colors. But during its
composition the piece partially lost this component in favor of the
creation of completed narrative structures which are developed inside each
of the six single fragments. I tried to link the single narrative paths
through an overall structure comprising the six studies. As far as the
sound material is concerned, each fragment takes into consideration
particular aspects of the electronic sound world, like the alternation
between sound and noise, the rhythm caused by partially random parameters
and the environmental characteristics of certain timbral/harmonical
textures. Many of the musical elements are repeated and amplified from one
single piece to another (usually only between adjacent pieces), in order to
create timbral, besides structural, bonds between the six fragments.

In the work there are both electronic sounds and sampled acoustic
instruments. The first are used in order to emphasize the timbral aspects,
trying to insert compound objects characterized by a tonic and/or complex
mass. Sampled acoustic instruments were used to create composite events,
formed by a rhythmic assemblage of simple objects or by sound "groups" with
a rhythmic function.

CHROMATISM has been realized in Florence at the Musicological Department of
CNUCE/C.N.R. (Conservatory of Music) with the automatic composition
software Teletau, the Yamaha TX81Z synthesizers and the Roland S550
sampler.

****

Sonya Rapoport
6 Hillcrest Court
Berkeley, CA 94705 USA

Email: <[email protected]>

SEXUAL JEALOUSY: The Shadow of Love (1992) is a computer-based interactive
installation in which the viewer responds to questions that investigate the
sources of sexual jealousy and address the quality of that jealousy.

The work is a sequel to the participation performance COPING WITH SEXUAL
JEALOUSY that took place in the Pauley Ballroom at the University of
California, Berkeley, in 1981. The installation space had been divided into
coping areas where participants exorcised their past jealousy experiences
by engaging in ritual that related to their coping methods.

In SEXUAL JEALOUSY: The Shadow of Love, users' answers to questions on the
computer culminate in a search to find their personalized "shadow" message
on a floor that is covered with the footprints of thirty Indonesian shadow
puppets. The pair of footprints that surrounds the correct "shadow" message
must match the identical foot positions that appear on the user's last card
of the computer program. This footprint stance is shown on the screen and
printed after the participants answer questions about their choice of mate,
feelings of loss, and methods of coping. When the pair of the footprints on
the print out is matched with the pair on the floor the participants find
their personalized "shadow" message in between -- "Why haven't you told me
this before or "Finally, I blurted out my news." for instance. As the
participants step on the footprints, Indonesian music is emitted that
harmonizes with the other sounds from footstep triggering.

Directly above their footprints are facsimiles of the puppets that have
been printed on clear mylar strips 16"x 32". They "dance" by air currents
from a fan and cast shadows.

The computer program with which the participants interact was created with
Hypercard 2.01 on a Macintosh IIcx having eight megabytes of RAM. By means
of QuickTime and Adobe Premiere software, clips of soap operas have been
accessed from a videotape into the program. They illustrate ways of coping
- an hysterical woman throwing objects or an vengeful man forcing a woman
to "accept" the situation. These soap operas are interspersed among
contextually related cards in the Hypercard stack.

Accompanying the text, three groups of illustrations - Aubrey Beardsley
drawings, Jungian mythological images and Indonesian Shadow puppets are
orchestrated throughout the program to signal different phases.

Dr. Ayala Pines has been the consulting psychologist. The "shadow" messages
are quotes from movie scripts that relate to the data input by the
participants.
=============================================== <<<<< PROGRAMS AND REVIEWS
>>>>>

LA REVUE KAOS

LA REVUE KAOS ("Il faut beaucoup de KAOS dans la tete pour accoucher d'une
etoile qui danse") presents contemporary writing created on computers. In a
color printed disk holder that contains a white disk, it comes out once a
year on New Year's day, distributed by Societe de Traitement Avance du
Langage "qui est heureuse a cette occasion de vous souhaiter une nouvelle
annee particulierement riche d'initiatives et de creativite."

KAOS No. 1 (1991) contains work by Jean-Pierre Balpe, Philippe Bootz,
Michael Lechner, and Tibor Papp. (on a 5 1/4" MS-DOS disk) KAOS No. 2
(1992) contains work by Balpe, Jean-Paul Jappe, Bernard Magne, Christophe
Petchanatz, and Patrice Zana. Contact: KAOS, 87 Rue Voltaire, 92800
Puteaux, France.

****

REVIEW: VIRTUAL REALITY INSTALLATIONS AT THE JACK TILTON GALLERY

Peter Terezakis
Email: [email protected]

The Looking Glass: Artists' First Encounters With Virtual Reality. Jack
Tilton Gallery, 24 West 57th St., NY, NY, 10019. Curated by Janine
Cirincione June 4, through July 3, 1992.

"The Jack Tilton Gallery is pleased to announce the first gallery
exhibition to present the new generation of work by contemporary artists
and collectives who explore virtual reality.

This exhibition and catalog will provide an overview of VR as a cultural
phenomenon, and will exhibit the kinds of images and virtual worlds that
artists will build as access to VR technology becomes increasingly
available." Gallery press release.

----

Walking through the virtual art space of this show was nowhere near as
thrilling as slogging through a tired children's science museum in
Bridgeport, Connecticut. Fortunately, for this viewer, the trip uptown was
rewarded by having the opportunity to view the works of David Wilson and
Matt Mullican.

Mr. Wilson's BELLES HEURES RECREATION was a thoughtful work, meticulously
crafted. This stereoscopic diorama encouraged the viewer to approach the
work from an open side of the piece. As one approached the work, one was
able to see inside the piece, to examine the landscape and imagery of the
work. When one looked through the intended viewing stereoscope lenses
things changed dramatically. Not only was the expected stereopsis present,
but through the use of prisms and appropriately arranged images this
"primitive" virtual reality work set a standard that few of the other works
could approach in concept or execution.

The second exception was Mr. Mullican's untitled 1991 video tape of a
virtual reality project that was made possible by a grant through CNAP
Ministere de la Culture, France. The work represented the artist's
preoccupation with architectural environments, both on the planet's surface
and within his mind. It seemed to be about approaching a problem or living
life. One began with an omniscient aerial view (adolescence) of Anytown,
Anywhere and descended (loss of innocence) to the surface and explored home
after home of windowless neighborhoods. These neat little homes, streets,
and perfect lawns, reminded me of some post apocalyptic Orwellian future
state devoid of animals and humanity. After flirting with anomie a while
longer, one eventually found a window in a home and entered. The meaningful
act of trespassing even in a virtual space evoked a strong reaction. And by
this point one could easily find oneself enjoying near psychedelic
voyeurism while being caught up in the artist's pursuit of his vision. This
was a restless tour de force of prerecorded virtual reality and Mr.
Mullican's vision promises many wonderful things.

A silent icon presiding over the show was a dye print of the layout of a
486 microprocessor designed by Intel Corporation scientists, engineers, and
technicians. This neobyzantine graphical representation of the inner
workings of the most significant engine of our era somehow reminded me of
the black monolith on the moon in Arthur Clarke's 2001. Other works
included in The Looking Glass were:


BRIAN D'Amato: SET FOR SACRIFICE GAME (1992), LCD monitors, computer
generated video on Sony LCD player
Michael Joaquin Grey & Randolph Huff: NEURAL NETWORK ANIMATIONS (1991), wax
transfer on mylar with plexiglass
Lynn Hershman, in collaboration with Sara Roberts: DEEP CONTACT (1990)
interactive videodisk.
David Johnson: VIRTUAL TILTON GALLERY (1992), modeled gallery in computer
and subsequently installed his own sculptures, geometric /biomorphic forms
whose placement would be determined by the participant viewer
Nicole Stenger: ANGELS (1992), video sketch of VR film i486 Intel (1992),
dye transfer
Intel & Sense8, 2 virtual reality systems, goggles, joystick, and wand in
the gallery space.
-----
copyright Peter Terezakis, 1992 All Rights Reserved.

****
Xb: A BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE OF THE LITERATURE OF XEROGRAPHY

Reed Altemus
16 Blanchard Rd.
Cumberland Ctr., Maine
04021-9738 USA

Email: <[email protected]> OR <[email protected]>

Xb : a bibliographic database of the literature of xerography,
(photo)copier art, electrostatic printing and electrographic art, seeks
data and materials about the form copy art and the use of duplicative
printing technologies for cultural or artistic purposes by artists or
non-artists for input into the Procite bibliographic software for the
Macintosh. An ongoing art information-information art project, Xb requests
submissions especially in machine- readable form but also in other media
formats: periodicals, serials, newspaper and magazine clippings, exhibition
announcements and catalogs, monographs, search printouts and information on
disk, all these are of interest. A copy of the completed bibliography or
the database on diskette (Procite databases work equally well on Mac or
IBM) to each contributor along with some sort of documentation of the
process and a list of participants. Send submissions either by street or
electronic mail to the above addresses.

****

VIDEO BURN

Carolee Schneemann's VIDEO BURN (1992), an artist's book of black and white
photos and text, was produced in conjunction with her exhibition "Scroll
Paintings with Exploded TV" (1991) at the San Francisco Art Institute. [1]
Schneemann generated this series of powerful, disturbing, erotic images
from her drawing sequence VIDEO BURN (1987- 1991) . Words -- a few of which
are reproduced below -- are integrated into day-of-the week named, video
pattern overlayed drawings that incorporate imagery ranging from
Schneemann's nude body to bound female figures to right wing demonstrators
in Germany.

"THURSDAY
predatory virus....
submissive erotic victim...
(dissolve to dot matrix)...heart
pump...lubricity and calculated
insistence of alphabet...

FRIDAY
captive...drained heart corralled
by putti...infant penises airborne...
sacred material...lost history...
paint... shred...blow up pixels...
inside codex..."
------
Contacts: Walter/McBean Art Gallery, San Francisco Art Institute, 800
Chestnut St., San Francisco, CA 94133 USA/ Carolee Schneemann, 437
Springtown Rd., New Paltz, NY 12561 USA
------
*In this installation, mechanized mops suspended from the walls moved
rhythmically beside mop-made paintings while video monitors displayed the
process of the making of the paintings.
Judy Malloy

================================================
<<<<<<<<< FAST and LEONARDO JOURNAL INFORMATION >>>>>>>

LEONARDO JOURNAL and MIT Press
------------------------------
Leonardo is pleased to officially announce our new publishing arrangement
with MIT Press. Beginning with the 1993 LEONARDO JOURNAL volume (Volume 26)
MIT Press will replace Pergamon Press. Both Leonardo and MIT Press Journals
are excited about our relationship, and look forward to an interaction
which will benefit Leonardo, MIT Press, and our readers.

FAST Developments
-----------------
In addition, Leonardo is pleased to inform our readers that MIT Press Books
Division is joining us in the creation of a Leonardo Book Series. The
publication which will launch the series is the Leonardo FINE ART SCIENCE
AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE (FAST), which will be an annual hard copy resource
publication comprised of information collected for the FAST archives and
directory databases. It will include individual and organization directory
entries, bibliographies, artists' words on works, profiles of education and
research programs, publication and event reviews, and more.

As part of the compilation and publication process we are developing a
survey which will be sent to Leonardo/ISAST members, LEONARDO ELECTRONIC
NEWS and FINEART FORUM subscribers, and to people and individuals currently
listed in our database. The Leonardo FAST Resource is targeted for release
in the summer of 1993. We look forward to hearing back from our audience
with details about their current work.

This publication is part of our current development of the Fine Art Science
Technology system, and represents an important step on the way towards a
true multimedia Leonardo FAST Resource publication.

We are currently in the process of updating FAST on the WELL to reflect
major developments in FAST design. We will continue to post progress here
in LEONARDO ELECTRONIC NEWS.
Craig Harris <[email protected]>
****

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< FAST UPDATES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

FINEART FORUM and LEONARDO ELECTRONIC NEWS have been uploaded. The
calendars have been posted. Space Arts News will finally be posted as well
as a very slim Members News. A new Directory of email addresses of
subscribers will be posted soon.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< CALENDAR - OCTOBER 1992 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

01 October 1992

Deadline for submissions of abstracts and proposals for presentations for
Creativity and Cognition Loughborough University of Technology, UK
(Symposium dates: 13-15 April 1993)

Contact: Linda Candy, The Lutchi Research Centre, Loughborough University
of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK, fax: 44 509
610815, email: [email protected]
_____________________________________________ 05-07 October 1992

1992 INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MODELS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF MUSICAL
SIGNALS
Focus on microstructural and macrostructural representations Capri (Napoli)

Contact: Giovanni De Poli, CSC-DEI, Universita' of Padova, Via Gradenigo
6a, 35131 PADOVA, Italy, tel.: +39-49-8287631, fax: +39-49-8287699, e-mail:
[email protected] _____________________________________________ 09-11
October 1992

Visual Languages, IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages International
Convention Center Kobe, Japan

Contact: Professor Tada Ichikawa, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima
University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 724, Japan, tel: 81 824 22
7195, email: [email protected]
_____________________________________________ 13-16 October 1992

SMC 92, IEEE Intl Conf on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Charlottesville, VA

Contact: Chelsea C White III, Department of Industrial and Operations
Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
48109, USA, tel: 1 313 763 1332, email: [email protected]
_____________________________________________ 24-27 October 1992

Music Analysis, 3rd European Conference of Music Analysis Trento, Italy

Contact: Academia Filarmonica Trentian, Via Oriola 12, Trento 38100, Italy,
tel: 39 0461 238008, fax: 39 0461 238166.
_____________________________________________ 28-30 October 1992

Eurographics Workshop on Object-Oriented Graphics Champery, Switzerland

Contact: Eurographics Workshop on Object-Oriented Graphics, Centre
Universitaire d'Informatique, 12 rue du Lac, CH-1207 Geneva, SWITZERLAND,
tel: 41 (22) 787 65 86, fax: 41 (22) 735 39 05, e-mail: [email protected]
_____________________________________________ 30 October 1992

Deadline for papers for 1st International Conference on Cognitive
Musicology, Jyvaskyla, Finland
(conference dates: 26-29 August 1993)

Contact: Jukka Louhivuori, University of Jyvaskyla, Department of
Musicology, P.O. Box 35, 40351 JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, tel: + 358 41 601 337,
fax: + 358 41 601 331, e-mail: [email protected]

Nancy Nelson <[email protected]>
=============================================
******************************************************
Executive Editor: Craig Harris Editor: Nancy Nelson
Assoc. Editor: Judy Malloy
Editor This issue: Judy Malloy


Leonardo gratefully acknowledges the support of CRSS Architects, Inc., and
our individual sponsors.

Send requests for subscription to LEONARDO ELECTRONIC NEWS (LEN) to:
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****

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September 15, 1992

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