Re: [mpisgmedia] FSI and TDR

Just some updates from Mumbai:

In Mumbai, development started getting controlled through FSI since 1964 and TDR was used since the begining of 1990s... Both adopted from the US planning processes.

FSI: Floor Space Index is the ratio between the built up area allowed and plot area available. So as geeta explains, if FSI is 1 then on a plot of 100 sqmts, one can build 100 sqmts of built up area and with setbacks and openspaces, the building can be higher than one floor. Simply it means that higher the FSI, higher built up area is possible...or more simply: higher floors. In Mumbai, the Island city has an FSI of 1.33, the suburbs have an FSI of 1 and other distant suburbs have an FSI of 0.7.

TDR: Transfer of Development Rights is the Right to develop over one plot that can be transferred over another plot. For example, the island city of Mumbai has an FSI of 1.33 and for some reasons, the owner is not allowed to consume the whole FSI on his/her plot, then the remaining FSI can be used on another plot (ofcourse there are several conditions). This remaining FSI can also be sold in the open market.

In case of Mumbai, TDRs were used initially to compensate plot owners whose development right was ristricted due to some public programmes like widening of roads etc. Later this was used for compensating owners of Heritage buildings who could not develop their lands. More recenntly they have been used in case of Slum Redevlopments where additional development rights could not be consumed on a plot due to over density reasons. There is also talks about using TDR for redevelopment of old buildings. Another detail about TDR is that it can be only used in the same or nothern ward of the generating plot... Hence you could see sudden additions to suburban buildings that have high property value.

The more severe of these things and the one that have created a mess in the city is the ADR: Additional development Right. These are given to rehabilitate slums or redevelop old buildings with an intention that from the profit that gets generated of the additional right, the redevelopment/rehabilitation work can be undertaken.

Prasad Shetty.

On Sat, 03 Sep 2005 Gita Dewan Verma wrote :
>Nidhi, sorry, was out.
>FAR and FSI are same in principle, respectively % and
>ratio of built space to plot area (eg, FAR 100 is same
>as FSI 1 and means total built space on plot can be
>same as plot area). Together with ground coverage
>FAR/FSI guide 'form' (eg 100 FAR with 25% GC means 4
>storied building, with 50% 2 storied, etc). The upper
>limits are related to density and designed
>infrastructure capacity.
>I think it was in mid-90s that Mumbai made policy to
>allowing higher FSI than normally permissible as
>'incentive' to builders (many, including myself,
>consider this patently inappropriate). TDR (Transfer
>of Development Rights) was a further contrivance that
>basically means the 'incentive' can be availed
>elsewhere (if not feasible on-site).
>Enhanced-FSI / TDR are becoming routine even as there
>is no evidence to prove that they have met their
>intended objective (of solving the slum problem) at
>all, forget efficiently.
>can someone from mumbai or SPA please correct errors /
>up-date above?
>btw, i dont think the query is 'stupid'. i consider
>the routine chanting of FSI-TDR serious paradigm-drift
>and think it is important to keep questioning its
>techno-legal premise basis.
>rgds, gita
>--- Nidhi Jamwal <[email protected]> wrote:
> > i need to understand a very very basic thing (which
> > might sound stupid as
> > well).. if someone could help..
> >
> > what is floor space index (FSI) and transfer of
> > development rights (TDRs)?
> > i am at present in mumbai and keep hearing and
> > reading these terms in
> > newspapers.... to me FSI is comething like a
> > goldmine which each
> > politicians builder etc wants to strike.. state
> > government is being very
> > liberal in increasing FSI, especially in the name of
> > housing the poor...
> > if u want to rebuild chawals and dilapidated
> > buildings, increase FSI..
> > want to rehabilitate slumswallahs, increase FSI..
> > how does one calculate
> > it? Is it different from different areas? what is
> > the logic in its
> > calculations and what can happen in a city like
> > Mumbai if FSI merrily goes
> > on increasing at whims and fancies of politicians?
> > like what happends if
> > FSI is increased from 1.5 to 2.5? or more? lastly
> > what is this TDR?
> >
> > i know i might be sounding stupid, but then journos
> > are known for their
> > ignorance and incompetence..:)
> >
> > nidhi
> >
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Prasad Shetty
Residence: 501, Marigold, Opposite Shakti Motors, New Link Road, Malad (W),
Mumbai 400 064 INDIA
Phone: +91-9820912744
  • [mpisgmedia] TDR, metroPD, heritage/ecoZones (and Poverty-concert & FICCI-do piety)
    • From: Gita Dewan Verma
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