ARCHITECTURE: 1994 HUD Research Report. [Very Long]

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RECENT RESEARCH RESULTS--A NEWSLETTER FROM
HUD USER

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Office of Policy Development and Research

January 1994
YEAR-IN-REVIEW ISSUE


HUD USER Explores Manufactured Housing

HUD USER's new resource guide reviews available information
on one of today's most promising-and least understood-affordable
housing options. Manufactured Housing: A HUD USER Resource
Guide provides housing professionals, policymakers, and interested
consumers with an outline of research and descriptive information
on the past, present, and future of what are still popularly known
as "mobile homes."

Although approximately 15.4 million Americans live in more than
7.4 million
manufactured homes, its value as an affordable housing resource
is often ignored or misunderstood, in part because the principles
and practices that define other housing types do not apply to it.
Many manufactured homes produced today are visually and
functionally indistinguishable from site-built housing, but they are
built, marketed, financed, and taxed more like a car than a house.
Manufactured homes are ostensibly "mobile" but rarely moved.
Although more than 80 percent of manufactured homes are
owner-occupied, more than half are placed on land owned by
someone else. The resource guide helps readers move beyond these
apparent contradictions and understand the dynamics of the
manufactured housing market, as well as the potential for-and
barriers to-its expansion.

The guide contains brief discussions of approximately 40 books,
technical reports, journal articles, transcripts, handbooks, and
other documents that, taken together, comprise a basic road map
of the significant areas, landmarks, and pathways in research on
manufactured housing. Drawn from technical, trade, and scholarly
sources, the documents cited in the guide reflect the many
perspectives heard in the debate over manufactured housing,
including Federal and State regulators, local governments,
manufacturers, consumer and tenant groups, and researchers in
disciplines ranging from law to sociology to engineering.
Organized by subject, the guide features separate chapters that
discuss:

-General works on manufactured housing, its history and
terminology. These include consumer-oriented guides to
manufactured and other industrialized housing options, as well as
bibliographies and reference works.

-Statistical resources covering the basic market and
demographic characteristics of manufactured housing. This section
identifies and summarizes the most useful data sources sponsored
by government, industry, and academia.

-Recent research addressing persistent concerns about the
quality, durability, and safety of manufactured homes. This chapter
includes reports on fire safety, structural stability, durability,
ventilation, energy efficiency, and other topics.

-Publications on trends in the design and development of
manufactured housing communities. This section explores
strategies through which both public agencies and private
developers are transcending the aesthetic and functional limitations
of the stereotypical "mobile home park."

-Commentaries from a variety of perspectives on the
regulation of manufactured housing at the Federal, State, and local
levels. The guide describes the HUD-administered Manufactured
Home Construction and Safety Standards that regulate the
production of manufactured homes. It also analyzes the roots and
consequences of local zoning policies and building regulations that
exclude manufactured housing.

Manufactured Housing: A HUD USER Resource Guide organizes
and synthesizes the diffuse and often obsure literature on
manufactured housing, providing a cogent introduction to a
complex field. It is available from HUD USER for $4. Please use
the order form to obtain copies.

HUD Conference Discusses Latest Urban Research

A distinguished group of researchers and policymakers participated
in HUD's Regional Growth and Community Development
Conference, held in Washington, DC, on November 18. In his
remarks to the participants, Secretary Henry G. Cisneros called the
gathering "a metaphor for the approach we are taking to urban
policy development in this Administration."

The conference was part of an effort by Michael A. Stegman,
Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research, to
reinvigorate public discussion of urban issues and promote the
development of a coherent, integrated national urban policy.
Designed to overcome the intellectual isolation and bureaucratic
divisions that have fragmented urban policy in the past, the
conference provided a forum for scholars from a variety of
academic disciplines to share current thinking on the changing
urban economy with senior officials from a wide range of Federal
and international agencies, public interest and trade groups,
universities, think tanks, and consulting firms.

A dominant theme of the conference was the crucial role of
"human capital" in driving urban economic growth. In his paper,
"Cities, Information, and Economic Growth," Harvard's Edward
L. Glaeser, drawing on scholarship in economics, sociology, urban
theory, and other fields, outlined the "new regional economics,"
suggesting that the same characteristics that enable cities to
accumulate and develop human capital for economic growth also
enhance the potential for crime, instability, and other urban
problems that drain away their capital. Macroeconomist Marcellus
W. Andrews of Wellesley College discussed this same
phenomenon in "On the Dynamics of Growth and Poverty in
Cities." Andrews posits that only policies that reduce rates of
educational failure can produce significant, long-term reductions
in urban poverty and unemployment and alleviate the caste
divisions exacerbated by unequal access to knowledge capital.
However, such policies are usually undermined or neglected in
favor of tax abatement and anticrime strategies designed to retain
the skilled middle class on which economic growth depends.

Many of the contributors also discussed policy options suggested
by the results of research on urban economic development. In
"The Economic and Fiscal Transformation of American Cities:
Policy Implications," Roy Bahl and Keith Ihlanfeldt of Georgia
State University reviewed scholarship on two aspects of the
continuing disparity in resources between cities and suburbs. They
discovered that differences in the relative fiscal conditions of
central city and suburban governments remained largely unchanged
during the 1980s, while most of the potential solutions that were
once promoted-Federal/State assistance to cities, regional tax base
sharing, urban gentrification-have been foreclosed or simply failed
to materialize. To correct the second disparity, the spatial
mismatch of jobs and labor within metropolitan markets, the
authors suggest initiatives that would increase job information for
city residents and provide reverse commuting services.


Posing the question, "What Should the Federal Government Be
Doing About Urban Economic Development?", Timothy J. Bartik
of the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research argues that,
given limited fiscal resources, the Federal Government can best
complement and reinforce State and local economic development
programs by providing modest Federal subsidies for job training
and technology dissemination efforts, sponsoring demonstrations
of programs that target disadvantaged workers, waiving selected
Federal regulations, and encouraging more rigorous evaluation of
State and local programs.

Helen F. Ladd of Duke University and Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., of
the University of Chicago raised questions about the efficacy of
enterprise zones. Ladd's analysis of data from enterprise zone
programs in England and the United States, presented in "Spatially
Targeted Economic Development Policies: Do They Work?",
indicates that "place-based" strategies that rely primarily-or
exclusively-on tax incentives and regulatory relief provisions may
redistribute jobs within an area, but do not effectively increase net
employment or improve the opportunities available to
disadvantaged zone residents. Lynn's "Social Structures as Urban
Economic Growth Tools," which considers the importance of
human capital, quality of life, and social characteristics for
business location decisions, also casts doubt on the ability of local
governments to effectively implement programs designed to
improve the social environment.

These papers, as well as contributions to the conference by Vernon
Henderson, Therese J. McGuire and Teresa Garcia-Mila, and
William Winfrey and William Darity, Jr., will be published in the
coming months in the first issue of Vanguard, PD&R's new
research journal.

Report Examines the Dynamics of Nonprofit Development

Nonprofit Housing: Costs and Funding, Final Report, a major new
study commissioned by HUD's Office of Policy Development and
Research, opens the way to a better understanding of the
challenges and needs facing nonprofit housing organizations by
presenting a detailed framework for assessing the nonprofit
housing development process. This framework makes possible a
much fuller accounting of both direct and indirect development
costs, as well as non-cash contributions and other resources not
used by most for-profit developers.

The study tested the framework for documenting costs and funding
on a small sample of 15 nonprofit housing projects, distributed
evenly among five metropolitan areas-Boston; Washington, DC;
Chicago; Kansas City; and San Francisco. Although the study
projects are not statistically representative of the nonprofit housing
sector, analysis of them yields a number of potentially important
insights. For example, the researchers discovered that there does
not seem to be a single, prototypical pattern of nonprofit
development. Instead they found what appear to be significant
variations between metropolitan regions in nonprofit development
"models" for ownership and financing structures, construction
approaches, and other features. they The report infers that these
local paradigms contribute to the large variation in development
costs among the study projects, even when adjusted for differences
in unit sizes and local site and market factors.

The study projects shared some significant characteristics. They
benefited from grants, subsidies, and non-cash contributions
ranging in value from one-eighth to two-thirds of total
development costs. However, the value of these resources was
diluted by the effort needed to acquire them: nonprofit sponsors in
the study were forced to gather an average of 7.8 funding sources.
This complex "layering" of subsidies increased costs and helped
prolong the average project pre-development period to nearly 30
months. One way in which the nonprofit developers in the study
minimized costs was by charging much lower developer fees-an
average of only 3.9 percent of total cost, compared with the
approximately 10 percent charged by most for-profit developers.
However, the researchers noted that such low fees help explain the
difficulty that many nonprofits seem to have in building the
organizational capacity needed to expand their activities.

Despite the many internal and external obstacles that nonprofits
must overcome to successfully develop affordable low-income
housing, total per-unit development costs for the nonprofit projects
were generally comparable to similar projects undertaken by
for-profit developers. The adjusted full development cost of each
unit of housing created in this sample of 15 new construction and
substantial rehabilitation projects averaged $85,467.

These and other findings are presented and discussed in the first
volume of the report; the case studies in Volume II describe the
unique development history of each project. The report also
proposes an agenda for additional research on nonprofit affordable
housing production. Nonprofit Housing: Costs and Funding, Final
Report is $4 for each volume. Use the order form to obtain your
copy from HUD USER.
1993 IN REVIEW

Price
American Housing Survey

American Housing Survey Data Chart
Displays summary data from the 1989 national survey on an
attractive, easy-to-read 25- x 35-inch poster. February
(ACCN-BRO0017)Free

American Housing Survey for the United States in 1991
Presents data, weighted for consistency with the 1990 census, from
the most recent survey of the Nation's housing stock and its
occupants. October (ACCN-HUD6145)$4.00

American Housing Survey Metropolitan Area Studies 1990
Details housing characteristics of selected metropolitan statistical
areas (MSAs) from among the 44 MSAs surveyed every 4 years.
February
Anaheim-Santa Ana (ACCN-HUD6062) $4.00
Cincinnati (ACCN-HUD6079) $4.00
Denver (ACCN-HUD6095) $4.00
Kansas City (ACCN-HUD6083) $4.00
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale (ACCN-HUD6078) $4.00
New Orleans (ACCN-HUD6077) $4.00
Pittsburgh (ACCN-HUD6082) $4.00
Portland (ACCN-HUD6081) $4.00
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario(ACCN-HUD6098) $4.00

Rochester (ACCN-HUD6096) $4.00
San Antonio (ACCN-HUD6097) $4.00

American Housing Survey Metropolitan Area Studies 1991
October
Atlanta (ACCN-HUD6175) $4.00
Baltimore (ACCN-HUD6203) $4.00
Chicago (ACCN-HUD6192) $4.00
Columbus (ACCN-HUD6208) $4.00
Hartford (ACCN-HUD6210) $4.00
Houston (ACCN-HUD6191) $4.00
New York-Nassau-Suffolk (ACCN-HUD6193) $4.00
Northern New Jersey (ACCN-HUD6194) $4.00
St. Louis (ACCN-HUD6209) $4.00
San Diego (ACCN-HUD6204) $4.00
Seattle-Tacoma (ACCN-HUD6211) $4.00

American Housing Survey Microdata Tapes 1991
Offers researchers access to raw data from the 1991 national
sample and that year's 11 surveyed metropolitan areas. October
(Please specify ASCII or ECBD1C format)
Metropolitan Areas (ACCN-AVI0024) $100.00
National (ACCN-AVI0023) $100.00

What Is the American Housing Survey?
Provides a brief overview of the uses and benefits of the American
Housing Survey and describes the full range of AHS products.
February (ACCN-HUD6061) Free



Assisted Housing/Section 8

Capital Needs Assessment: Multifamily Rental Housing With
HUD-Insured (Or Held) Mortgages
Uses findings from Current Status of HUD-Insured (Or Held)
Multifamily Rental Housing to estimate the amount and distribution
of capital funding needed to correct physical backlogs in the
HUD-insured multifamily stock. February (ACCN-HUD6092)
$4.00

Current Status of HUD-Insured (Or Held) Multifamily Rental
Housing Evaluates the physical and financial condition of more
than 13,000 multifamily rental properties in the HUD-insured
stock. December (ACCN-HUD6261) $4.00



Building Technology

Alternatives to Lumber and Plywood in Home Construction
Reviews basic information on innovative building materials and
technologies that may be used in framing and sheathing residential
structures. September (ACCN-HUD6135)$4.00

Assessment of Damage to Single-Family Homes Caused by
Hurricanes Andrew and Iniki
Analyzes the type, extent, and probable causes of hurricane
damage in order to identify deficiencies in residential design,
construction practices, building codes, product/materials standards,
and public preparedness. December (ACCN-HUD6262)$4.00

Home Building Cost Cuts: Construction Methods and Materials for
Affordable Housing
Describes cost-effective building methods and materials for
foundations, floors, walls, roofs, mechanical systems, and site
design. September (ACCN-HUD2930)$4.00





Community Planning/Urban Development

Proposed Model Land Development Standards and Accompanying
Model State Enabling Legislation
Suggests minimum performance and prescriptive standards for
streets, stormwater management, erosion control, site utilities,
sanitary sewage systems, water supply, landscaping and open
space, and other aspects of local residential land development.
October (ACCN-HUD6212)$4.00



Homelessness

Allocating Homeless Assistance by Formula
Discusses the feasibility of a legislative proposal to consolidate
three of HUD's homeless assistance programs into a single
formula-based grant program. February (ACCN-HUD6102)$4.00

An Entrepreneurial Approach to Funding Social Services: The
Story of Pioneer Human Services
Reports on an innovative local social services agency that supports
its work through service contracts and self-generated revenues
rather than charitable contributions. July (ACCN-HUD6009)$4.00

Federal Programs to Help Homeless People
Lists more than 100 Federal programs and activities that homeless
providers can tap to help provide emergency food and shelter,
transitional and permanent housing, and a vast array of supportive
services. July (ACCN-HUD6130)$4.00

Practical Methods for Counting Homeless People
Describes and compares methods for collecting data on the
homeless and at-risk populations. July (ACCN-HUD5970)$4.00



Homeownership

Escrow Management for Single-Family Residential Property: Phase
1 Report
Inaugurates the first comprehensive study of escrow management
practices by explaining the function and operation of mortgage
escrow accounts, the forces that determine escrow balances and
payment levels, and the competing interests involved. May
(ACCN-HUD5829)$4.00

Escrow Management for Single-Family Residential Property, Phase
2: Report on Servicer Survey Examines escrow management
policies and practices of more than 200 mortgage servicers. May
(ACCN-HUD6101)$4.00


Interim Evaluation of the Single Family Property Disposition
Demonstration
Assesses results of a trial program that expedites disposition of the
HUD single-family inventory by selling homes at a discount to
selected local government agencies and nonprofit organizations.
September (ACCN-HUD6146)$4.00



Housing for Special Needs

Adaptable Housing: A Technical Manual for Implementing
Adaptable Dwelling Unit Specifications
Presents dozens of specific building design and rehabilitation
strategies for enhancing the accessibility of residential
environments. September (ACCN-HUD4981)$4.00

Cost of Accessible Housing
Uses case studies to estimate the incremental cost of designing and
building market-rate multifamily rental housing that conforms to
the requirements of the Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.
September (ACCN-HUD6180)$4.00

Preliminary Evaluation of the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage
Insurance Demonstration: Report to Congress
Reports on the progress of HUD's 5-year reverse mortgage
demonstration program, which allows elderly homeowners to tap
their largest financial asset-their home-without selling or moving.
May (ACCN-HUD6094)$4.00



Housing Policy

Directory of Information Resources in Housing and Urban
Development, Third Edition
Describes the activities and services of 145 organizations and 44
online databases that gather and disseminate information on
housing- and development-related topics. October
(ACCN-HUD6200)$26.00

Directory of Technical Assistance and Training
Presents basic information on technical assistance and training
opportunities currently funded by HUD. July
(ACCN-HUD6123)$4.00

Estimated Median Family Incomes for Fiscal Year 1993
Lists annually adjusted estimates of the decile distribution of
family income in every county, MSA, and primary MSA in the
United States. July
National (ACCN-DOC1600) $20.00
State (ACCN-DOC1601) specify State(s): __________________
$5.00
Area Definitions (ACCN-DOC1602) $10.00

Location of Worst Case Needs in the Late 1980s
Estimates the range of "worst case" housing needs in 44 major
housing markets and outlines critical elements of a national
strategy for reducing such needs. April (ACCN-HUD6104)$4.00

Rediscovering Urban America: Perspectives on the 1980s
Collects articles by several distinguished scholars that, taken
together, outline the salient economic, demographic, social, and
structural characteristics of the Nation's changing urban system.
May (ACCN-HUD6106)$4.00

1991 Report to Congress on the Federal Home Loan Mortgage
Corporation
Examines the financial condition, market position, and statutory
and regulatory responsibilities of Freddie Mac. April
(ACCN-HUD6110)$10.00

1991 Report to Congress on the Federal National Mortgage
Association
Updates Fannie Mae's current and projected financial health, as
well as activities undertaken in pursuit of its federally chartered
mission. April (ACCN-HUD6109)$10.00

1993 Income Limits for "Low-Income" and "Very Low-Income"
Families Under the Housing Act of 1937
Lists by family size the income limits used to determine eligibility
for federally assisted housing; includes every county and MSA in
the United States. July
Hard copy (ACCN-DOC1700) $25.00
Diskette (ACCN-AVI0025) specify diskette size: $20.00
State (ACCN-DOC1701) specify State(s): $5.00



Housing Production/Rehabilitation Programs

Evaluation of the Rental Rehabilitation Program: Summary
Reports on the effectiveness of a 1980s HUD program intended to
increase the supply of safe, decent, and affordable housing for
lower-income households in rural areas. February
(ACCN-HUD4986)$4.00

Nonprofit Housing: Costs and Funding
See article in this issue for more information.
Volume I-Findings (ACCN-HUD6291) $4.00
Volume II-Case Studies (ACCN-HUD6290) $4.00

Rural Rental Rehabilitation Demonstration: Report to Congress
Evaluates the performance of the 1987-91 demonstration that
extended HUD's Rental Rehabilitation Program to previously
ineligible areas. February (ACCN-HUD6103)$4.00



Lead-Based Paint

Comprehensive and Workable Plan for the Abatement of
Lead-Based Paint in Privately Owned Housing
Investigates the incidence, severity, and consequences of lead
contamination in privately owned housing and outlines an
interagency research, capacity-building, and assistance agenda for
promoting abatement of lead paint hazards. July
(ACCN-HUD5716)$4.00

Lead-Based Paint: Interim Guidelines for Hazard Identification and
Abatement in Public and Indian Housing
Presents Federal guidelines for procedures that public housing
agencies and their contractors should follow in identifying,
controlling, and abating lead-based paint hazards in their
properties. July (ACCN-HUD5646)$35.00

Lead Inspector Training: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Model Training Course Curriculum
Provides complete materials for EPA-sponsored curriculum
designed to train inspection professionals in the specific procedures
and regulatory requirements for testing for lead in public and
Indian housing. July
Instructor's Manual and Slides (ACCN-AVI6140) $115.00
Student Manual (ACCN-AVI6141) $5.00



Manufactured Housing

Manufactured Housing: A HUD USER Resource Guide
See article in this issue for more information. (ACCN-
HUD6245)$4.00



Public and Indian Housing

Capitated Payment Formulas for Public Housing
Considers the feasibility and impact of replacing the current
method of subsidizing public housing agencies with a capitated
payment formula similar in concept to those used by health
maintenance organizations (HMOs) to establish payment levels for
comprehensive health care services. April
(ACCN-HUD6107)$4.00

Creating Community: Integrating Elderly and Severely Mentally
Ill Persons in Public Housing
Examines strategies that public housing agencies and mental health
providers can undertake to effectively serve and integrate younger
mentally ill persons and elderly persons in public housing. October
(ACCN-HUD6213)$4.00

Evaluation of Resident Management in Public Housing
Compares the management functions and programs undertaken by
11 pioneering resident management corporations with those
provided by the public housing agency in which they are located.
April (ACCN-HUD6093)$4.00

Report on Emerging Resident Management Corporations in Public
Housing
Describes the progress toward resident management achieved by
80 grantees of HUD resident management technical assistance
grants. April (ACCN-HUD6108)$4.00

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